Don K. Preston, D.Div. (President of Preterist Research Institute – PRI; Author) – Annual PPW Host and BBC Conference; 2012 Criswell College Event Speaker, 2009 Omaha Preterist Conference; 2007 Carlsbad Eschatology Conference; and many more!
Don was a 1975 graduate of the Northside School of Preaching, (seminary) Harrison, Arkansas. Don has been in public speaking since the age of 13 and was voted among the Jaycees’ “Outstanding Young Men of America,” 1980. Don’s preaching ministry spanned nearly four decades in two different cities; Shawnee and Ardmore, Oklahoma. Don worked for seven years helping to produce a television program for a Christian magazine which received national recognition in the magazine, “Christianity Today.”……………Read More >
William Bell is the founder and President of “All Things Fulfilled Ministries,” a non-profit organization designed to educate the world about Covenant Eschatology and New Covenant Fulfilled Theology, also known as Preterism. William is co-host with Dr. Don K. Preston, on the show “Two Guys and A Bible,” which can be heard every Tuesday on Fulfilled Radio.
William is also the creator of “The Last Days DVD Series,” a 5 volume DVD set devoted to teaching people about a proper understanding of Biblical “End Times.” William has been studying Eschatology since 1977, and has spoken in many conferences, written many articles on the subject, and he has even authored a couple of books, including: Have You Spoken in Tongues?, When Was the Law of Moses Fulfilled?, and Zionism – The Wolf in Judaism’s Clothing. He also continues to present video lessons on the subject through the social media network “YouTube.” You can catch more of William Bell at his website, www.allthingsfulfilled.com.
William is married and is self employed. He enjoys working from home, reading, writing, public speaking, teaching, coaching, music, playing bass guitar, recording, natural foods, boxing, and inspiring children.
Pastor David Curtis is the founder, Elder, and Teaching Pastor of “Berean Bible Church,” in Virginia Beach, VA. Established in early 1997 Pastor David and members of a previous church founded BBC as a church focused on teaching God’s Word from a New Covenant, Fulfilled perspective, known as Preterism. Since that time Pastor David has spoken in multiple venues and conferences on the subject of Covenant Eschatology and Preterism, in addition to various other Biblical subjects. To find Pastor Curtis and his many bible study teachings both in audio and video, visit Berean Bible Church.
Oscar Miles offers the unique blend of 25 years of pastoral counseling experience and a newly-acquired Master’s degree in Mental Health Counseling. He is also a National Certified Counselor (NCC). He specializes in marital and premarital counseling, sexual addiction, grief counseling, Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy for traumatized or abused children, spiritual abuse and other spiritual issues.
Larry Siegle is a broadcast professional, having worked for radio stations in the San Francisco Bay Area (KDIA/KDYA), Colorado Springs (KPIK), Lufkin, Texas (KSPL/KIPR), Crane, Texas (KXOI) and Denver, Colorado (KLTT). Larry Siegle has served in the capacity of General Manager, Program Director, Sales Manager, DJ, and now as Owner/Manager of Covenant Key FM, in San Antonio. Larry Siegle has been a Minister, preaching the message of Fulfillment for more than 25 years, speaking on Covenant Eschatology Seminars in Warren, Ohio; Columbia, South Carolina; and Ardmore, Oklahoma.
Joel McDurmon, M.Div., Reformed Episcopal Theological Seminary, is the Director of Research for American Vision. He has authored four books and also serves as a lecturer and regular contributor to the American Vision website. He joined American Vision’s staff in the June of 2008. Joel and his wife and three sons live in Dallas, Georgia.
Rod MacArthur is the grandfather of six with roughly forty years of experience in preaching and teaching the Bible. Rod studied at U of W (1965–1969) to become a Chemical Engineer; but he changed directions in his senior year to enter ministry and hasn’t looked back. Rod studied diligently at Kirkland preacher training school from 1969–1971. Rod married Linda Rubel in 1970; they have three adult children together.
Rod began preaching in Moscow, ID in 1972; then to Spokane, WA; Terre Haute, IN; and now preaches in Auburn, WA. His hobbies are gardening: fruits, vegetables and roses, and he enjoys back-packing: he has twice been to the top of Half Dome in Yosemite. Rod has also worked with jail and prison inmates to help them turn their lives around and to give them hope for a better life.
For more than 20 years, Steve Temple has taught a weekly Sunday morning Bible study while frequently teaching mid-week classes as well. He has been married for more than 30 years and has four children and three grandchildren. He graduated from NC State University in 1975 and is the author of “Who Was The Mother of Harlots – Drunk with the Blood of the Saints.”
Jerel Kratt has worked as an agronomist, agricultural technician and sales representative since 1995. He obtained his Bachelor of Science degree in Land Resource Management in 1996 from Cal-State University, Bakersfield. He has contributed numerous articles within the field of preterism, and has spoken in many conferences and seminars. Jerel was a teaching and preaching minister at a Washington State congregation from 2005-2010, and he currently leads an adult bible study group at his church in addition to a home study group of about 30 individuals who meet twice per month. Included in Jerel’s body of work are very important articles and contributions made within the field of the Covenant Creation view, and in response to Sam Frost’s “Physical Creation” model which in part resulted in his abandonment of full preterism and back to futurism. Some of this can be found here: http://beyondcreationscience.com/index.php?pr=C_Creation_in_2_Pet_3 and here: Adam – The First Covenant Man (PowerPoint). Jerel has been married since 2000 to his wife Jessy, and they have four children.
Alan Bondar is the pastor and founder of LIFT Church, a native of Baltimore, now residing in Fort Myers, Florida. Alan was a Youth Director for almost a decade in the PCA denomination. Alan’s theological background started in the Baptist denomination, which led him to Word of Life Bible Institute after two years at Essex Community College studying music.
Alan developed a deep passion to minister to teenagers while at Word of Life. He received his Bachelor of Science in Bible with an emphasis in Youth Ministry at Philadelphia Biblical University. While there, Alan was introduced to Reformed Theology. He began working in the PCA denomination as a Youth Director, while enrolled at Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary in Pittsburgh followed by Reformed Theological Seminary working towards the completion of his MA in religion.
Alan is the author of “Reading the Bible through New Covenant Eyes” and he is currently working on the sequel, “Living Our Lives With New Covenant Eyes.” You can check out “LIFT Church” by visiting www.myliftchurch.com.
Jack Scott (Former Pastor “Ardmore Family of God”) – 2008 TruthVoice Conference; 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011 PPW
Jack Scott has been married to Paula for more than 30 years, and is the father of four children and three grandchildren. Jack is the former pastor of Ardmore Family of God Church in Ardmore, Oklahoma and served from 2008-2010. More information about Jack Scott will be coming soon……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Glenn Hill is a retired pastor and businessman, and is the author of “Christianity’s Great Dilemma.” He has been preaching the Gospel since childhood. He served as an assistant pastor for more than thirteen years. For nearly twenty-eight years he was the pastor of Meadowbrook Christian Church, a small non-denominational church. He continues to preach wherever he is invited. Like the Apostle Paul, he also worked in the secular world, though his ministry always held a priority in his life. He was a bank vice-president, the CEO of a rather large non-profit organization, and for many years operated a retail business. He and his wife of more than fifty years, Betty Sue, live in Rocky Mount, NC. They have four children, twelve grandchildren, and one granddaughter-in-law.
Sam Frost lives in Valrico, Florida with his wife Ann Marie and four children. Sam’s education consists of a Bachelor’s degree in Theology, a Master of Christian Studies, and a Master’s Degree of Religion from Whitfield Theological Seminary. Sam performed adjunct work at Cleveland Church of God School of Theology and Reformed Theological Seminary, and was pursuing a Ph.D. in Philosophy as recently as 2010 from Whitfield T.S. He is the author of “Misplaced Hope: The Origins of 1st & 2nd Century Eschatology,” “Exegetical Essays on the Resurrection,” in addition to co-authoring the multi-authored book “House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology – A Preterist Response to When Shall These Things Be?” His most recent publication includes a small book titled: Why I Left Preterism,” which was a published explanation for his departure from full preterism. In addition to writing, Sam is a lecturer, and has made multiple television and radio appearances. He is also a member of the Evangelical Theological Society (ETS), and is the president of Reign of Christ Ministries (RCM).
Tony began his journey as a 4th generation member of the Churches of Christ. He has been a full-time minister since 1981 and attended two years of college during his early ministry focusing primarily on courses to aid in his work: public speaking, communications, and writing. In 1982 he began to be modestly supported to preach, and, as he became known in the Churches of Christ things snowballed from there. Besides holding numerous meetings from coast to coast, since 1983 he has worked to help spiritually/numerically build up ten COC congregations around the United States.
He has authored numerous articles published in The Christian’s Expositor, The Christian Informer, and The Old Paths Advocate. He has had two public/oral debates and has maintained a website (ASiteForTheLord) since 2000 on which some of his writings (and PowerPoint presentations) may be found. In 1985, during an in-depth study of Matthew 24, Tony began his slow trek toward preterism. Since then he spent six years doing an in-depth study on the book of Hebrews, creating 37 studies through that New Testament letter and publishing them in a book, titled: Hebrews: From Flawed to Flawless – Fulfilled! In 2012 he created/started a Preterist-Networking Registry. As of January 2014, he and his family live in the Phoenix, AZ, area.
Bryan E. Lewis is a native of Nashville, TN. Married to Holly since 1993, they have three children and one grandchild together. Bryan is also a veteran of the Army and is a former professional musician, private pilot, and maintains the website OrthodoxWars (a site dedicated to his graduate and upcoming Ph.D. research). Bryan obtained his Bachelor of Arts in Biblical and Theological Studies (Th.B.) at Southern Christian University in 2011. He spent two years in the Master of Theological Studies program at Vanderbilt University Divinity School where he earned a significant amount of graduate credit. He is currently finishing his Master of Arts in Biblical Studies degree at Amridge University’s, Turner School of Theology in Montgomery, Alabama. He is currently focusing on the intersection of history and theology in Pauline Theology and Eschatology.
Bryan is taught in both Biblical Greek and Hebrew and he is a member of the Society of Biblical Literature, the Evangelical Theological Society (ETS), and the American Academy of Religion. His most recent academic presentations include: Genesis 1-3 and Ancient Near East (Nashville Reformed Student Association – 2013), Historical Context and Biblical Interpretation (Grace Bible Fellowship – 2013), Justification and New Perspectives on Paul (Amridge University – 2013), Paul’s Use of the Old Testament in Romans (Amridge University – 2011), The Marriage Motif in New Testament Eschatology (Southeastern Eschatology Conference, NC – 2010), and Hosea in Paul’s Analogy in 1 Corinthians 15 (Preterist Pilgrim Weekend, OK – 2009).
Bryan was the Associate Pastor and Assistant Worship Pastor at “Love One Another Church” from 1992-1994, the Assistant Worship Pastor at “Tri-Cities Vineyard Fellowship” in 1995, the Worship Team Pastoral Leader at Belmont Church from 1996-2003, the Teaching Elder at Grace Reformed Church from 2004-2006, and the Senior Pastor at Fulfilled Life Bible Fellowship in Lebanon, TN from 2006-2009.
David Boone is the pastor of New Covenant Fellowship, Georgetown, TX. David began following Jesus in 2000 and for the next year he discipled and ministered to youth. David served as the Associate Teaching Director at Teen Community Bible study and on the board of directors of Georgetown Student Ministries. He has been a featured guest, speaking at various events, including Fellowship of Christian Athletes, high school graduations, youth lock-ins, and retreats. David served as a Youth Pastor for four years and as a full time Associate Pastor for more than two years at Terranova Church. After his quest for truth led him into Full Preterism, David was fired from that position and excommunicated. He immediately founded New Covenant Fellowship in August 2010. He is currently attending Austin Graduate School of Theology and working to complete his Bachelor of Arts Degree in Christian Studies. David has been married to Breann since March 2002 and is the proud father of four beautiful children.
Kurt Simmons is the moderator and author for Preterist Central, a full preterist/bi-millennial website dedicated to the advancement of fulfilled eschatology. He is the author of “Adumbrations: The Kingdom & Coming of Christ in the Book of Daniel,” “The Consummation of the Ages: Commentary on Revelation,” “The Road Back to Preterism” (a 32 page soft cover booklet), and he is the co-author with Michael A. Fenemore of the book “Twighlight of Postmillennialism: Fatal Errors in the Teachings of Keith A. Matthison, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr. Et Al.” Kurt hosted the 2007 and 2008 Carlsbad Eschatology Conferences in New Mexico and is an avid lecturer, writer, and minister. He holds a Juris Doctorate and is a licensed attorney.
Marty Angelo is the founder of Once Life Matters Ministries, a second chance ministry dedicated to bringing hope to those who are weary from the weight of the world with the love of Jesus Christ. Marty worked in the entertainment business from 1965 to 1980 as a television producer (Disco Step-by-Step), record promoter, restaurant/nightclub owner and personal manager for rock ‘n’ roll bands (Raven and Rob Grill and The Grass Roots). After a drug arrest in 1980 for cocaine possession, Angelo became a Christian prior to serving a six-year federal prison sentence. Upon his release on parole in 1984 Angelo worked for various Christian ministries such as, Faith Farm of Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, Teen Challenge of Southern California, Chuck Colson’s Prison Fellowship and the Palm Beach Drug Abuse Foundation.
From 2005-2011 Marty established and ran Marty Angelo Ministries, with the mission of proclaiming and teaching the gospel of the kingdom of God to prisoners, substance abuse recovery program clients, and troubled celebrities. The ministry utilized life-changing books, evangelistic outreaches, and follow-up resources. Angelo released a book in 2005 entitled, Once Life Matters: A New Beginning. The book goes into the details of his life in the entertainment business during the ’60s and ’70s leading up to his arrest, prison life and Christian ministry work for over 25 years. In 2009, Angelo published his book, Vision of New Jerusalem: Now!, an in-depth study of the relationship of the kingdom of God, the Church and the New Jerusalem, with an aim to prepare the Christian for victorious living, inner peace, staying out of troublesome situations, and bridging the gap between preterism and futurism.
Todd Dennis, B.B.S. (Owner of “The Preterist Archive”; Former Pastor) – 1994, 1995 American Coalition of Unregistered Churches Conference; 1995 Portland Baptist Temple Conference; 1995 Wichita, KS, Common Law Grand Jury Conference; 1996, 1997 Prophecy Conference in Bismarck, ND; 1997 Prophecy Conference in Fairbanks, AK; 1998 NCMI Prophecy Conference in San Diego, CA; 1999 Conference in Wasilla, AK; 2006, 2007 NCMI Conference in Page, AZ; 2007 Carlsbad Eschatology Conference; 2009 Prophecy Conference in Anchorage, AK
Todd Dennis is the moderator and owner of The Preterist Archive; the most thorough online database and collection of preterist material known to date. Todd received his undergraduate bachelor’s degree in Bible at Indianapolis Baptist Temple and was ordained in 1994. In 1993, Todd appeared on the Jerry Springer Show (Unconventional Christian Teachings – Sept. 9, 1993). From 1994-1998, Todd was the Sr. Pastor at Antioch Baptist Church. In 1995, Baptist pastor Todd D. Dennis began spreading the preterist message of first-century prophetic fulfillment on the World Wide Web. In the fall of 1996, his website, PreteristArchive.com, began uniting individual preterists from around the world. By presenting the writings of many contemporary and historical preterists through the mass media of the Internet, Dennis united a somewhat previously disenfranchised group of believers. The combined influence of the next generation of preterists was so strong that the mainstream theological community was forced to address its concerns in many responses, including the writings of Tommy Ice and Tim LaHaye. From that time forward, Todd has written and lectured publicly regarding the importance of seeing the proper significance of the Roman Jewish war in the realm of Bible prophecy. Though now identifying himself as Preterist-Idealist, his commitment to the original ideas has not wavered.
John Noē (pronounced “No-ee”) is president of the Prophecy Reformation Institute, a conservative, evangelical scholar, and a member of the Evangelical Theological Society. He holds an earned Ph.D. in Theology from Trinity Theological Seminary and the University of Liverpool (“With Distinction”). He’s the author of seven trade-published books: The Perfect Ending for the World, Hell Yes / Hell No, Off Target, The Greater Jesus, Unraveling the End, People Power, and Peak Performance Principles for High Achievers. John is also a screenwriter, an award-winning entrepreneur, and a past 20-year member of the National Speakers Association. He’s been featured on numerous TV and radio programs including CNN’s Larry King Live and CBN’s 700 Club, has climbed mountains around the world, and lives in Indianapolis with his wife, Cindy, a former 11-year state representative. They have two grown children and thirteen grandchildren.
Dallas Burdette has been a student, teacher and preacher of the Bible for sixty-five years, supporting himself for many years as an agent for AFLAC. He has written numerous articles for religious journals, as well as many essays and sermons which are available on his website (www.freedominchrist.net). He has developed a keen interest in promoting unity among God’s people through a more accurate reading of the Word. He has degrees from Amridge University (formerly Southern Christian University) where he also was Director of Extended Learning for five years. He holds the Doctor of Ministry degree (1999) from Erskine Theological Seminary. He has had twelve books published, including commentaries on Revelation, Daniel, a Defense of the Resurrection of Jesus, Christian Apologetics, Analysis of First Timothy, From Legalism to Freedom, Old Texts through New Eyes, and others dealing with various topics.
Ed Stevens is a Reformed full preterist, evangelical theologian, and is the president of the IPA. He and his wife Beth have three children, and five grandchildren, and they reside in Bradford, Pennsylvania. Ed is a graduate of Sunset School of Preaching, a Church of Christ seminary and school of missions in Lubbock, Texas (class of 1975), with a Bachelor of Arts degree in religious studies at Adelphi University in Garden City, New York (class of 1978). His primary studies focused on research in Eschatology, Judaism, Biblical Creationism, and Biblical History. He has Studied Hebrew, Talmud and Jewish History under Orthodox rabbis at the university and in synagogues, with significant studies of Josephus, Apostolic Fathers, Early Church History, New Testament Canonization, and New Testament Greek. Ed is currently finishing a Master’s degree in Biblical Studies through Sunset International Bible Institute. His current Master’s Thesis is: Redating the Epistle of Barnabas.
Ed preached nine years in Church of Christ congregations in four states, as well as in other churches in eight different states. He has lectured on creationism and Judaism at churches and seminaries. He was the director and instructor for two years at North East Ohio Bible Institute in Ashtabula, Ohio (Christian leadership school), where he taught undergraduate level courses on Church Planting, Church Growth, Personal Evangelism, Eschatology, Jewish History, Church History, Creation Science, and several other Biblical subjects. He was the pastor of the Reformed Christian Fellowship church in Groveland, NY for two years.
Ed has also spoken in more than 15 different states at preterist seminars. He is the co-host of a preterist radio talk show, and has interviewed on Arthur Melanson’s Christian radio program (The Joy of the Lord) numerous times. Ed has engaged in public debates, and has written three scholarly paper presentations at the regional and national meetings of the Evangelical Theological Society (ETS), in addition to numerous other articles, including published articles written for Fulfilled Magazine. Ed currently teaches first century history for a weekly podcast entitled “Then and Now.” He is also the author of six books: What Happened In AD 70?, Who Do You Say I Am?, Stevens’ Response To Gentry (written debate on preterist eschatology), Questions About The Afterlife (response to Gary DeMar’s five questions about the Resurrection), Expectations Demand a First Century Rapture, First Century Events in Chronological Order, and a soon-to-be-released major historical work: Final Decade Before the End.
Pastor/Evangelist Michael Miano (Blue Point Bible Church; Author) – 2014 Power of Preterism Conference; 2014 Debate vs. Pastor Bruce Bennett; 2013 Debate vs. Sam Frost; 2012 Defiance Conference
Michael Miano is the Pastor of Blue Point Bible Church, in Long Island, New York. He is a street evangelist, and also the director of the missional church network, The Freaked Out Movement. Michael also authored the book, Freaked Out by the New Covenant in 2012. As a former gang member turned radical Christian, Miano has been a church planter and church leader since 2007. He completed seminary courses through Cordon-Conwell Theological Seminary and is currently continuing his education through Fulfilled Covenant Christian Leaders Institute. Michael is also a delegate for the Christian Peacemaker Teams (Palestine). Michael is also a host on the internet radio program, Miano Gone Wild, on Blogtalk Radio. He has participated in debates regarding Biblical eschatology and the annihilationist position of “hell.” Michael is the Lead Organizer behind various calls to “church reform” – Reformation NOW, Long Island’s Next Big Thing, and ChristHASCome.org
Tim Martin, A.A. (Covenant Creation; Co-Author) – 2004 Victorious Covenant Living Conference; 2006, 2007 New Creation Ministries Conference; 2009 Truth Voice Conference; 2010, 2011 Covenant Creation Conference
Tim Martin was home educated for the majority of his schooling and finished his high school studies by graduating from Bob Jones Academy. Tim spent three summers on staff at Summit Ministries in Manitou Springs, Colorado. He also graduated with an A.A. in Liberal Arts from Christ College at Greenville, South Carolina (currently Lynchburg, Virginia). In 2001 he wrote the first edition of Beyond Creation Science which focused on the relationship between New Testament prophecy and the Genesis flood. Tim currently operates a small business in SW Montana and serves as a teaching elder in congregational ministry in his local congregation, Covenant Community Church. He is the moderator of Truth In Living.org, and he now lives in Whitehall, Montana, with his wife, Amy, and their nine children.
Jeff Vaughn, with Tim Martin, is the coauthor of Beyond Creation Science and one of the developers of Covenant Creation. Covenant Creation (Genesis 1 creation is the creation of God’s covenant with Adam) follows from Covenant Eschatology and focuses on origins and first things (beginnings) as it relates to preterism and last things. Jeff has spoken at TruthVoice Conference and at the Covenant Creation Conferences. Dr. Vaughn is a research mathematician and mathematical physicist. He is married to his college sweetheart Karen, of more than 30 years. They live in southern California and have 5 grown children. Jeff holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Math, a minor in Physics, and a Master of Arts in Applied Math. He also holds a Ph.D. in Nonlinear Adaptive Signal Processing. Jeff’s hobbies are as a fire-arms instructor, and he is a pilot.
Michael Sullivan, B.A. Theology (“House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology;” Co-Author) – 2017 PPW.
Michael Sullivan graduated from Calvary Chapel Bible College in 1988 and majored in Theology at The Master’s College. He co-authored the book, “House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology. A Preterist Response to When Shall These Things Be?” Current books Mike is working on include: “Matthew 24 and the Resurrection of the Dead: Fulfilled By AD 70,” and “A Full Preterist Solution to Self-fulfilling Middle East Eschatology – Islam, Zionism, and Dispensational Zionism.” He hosted The Living Body Show on Fulfilled Radio and is the administrator of www.fullpreterism.com. Mike is excited about getting his feet wet this year in oral debate, with Charismatic Dr. Michael Brown over 1 Corinthians 13:8-12 on November 15, 2017, at Calvary Chapel Charlotte. He and his lovely wife Denise have one daugher, Anna Grace.
Daniel Rogers (Labor Not In Vain Ministries, “The Last Enemy and the Triumph of Christ;” Author) – 2017 PPW
Daniel Rogers is an author and minister residing in Piedmont, AL. He and his wife Laura host a weekly Bible Study. Daniel is the author of The Last Enemy and the Triumph of Christ; he also hosts a weekly podcast entitled Face to Face on Fulfilled Radio. He attends the Georgia School of Preaching and Jacksonville State University, and he works from home for a promotional company. In his abundant amount of spare time, Daniel writes for his website, works on several ongoing projects, speaks on lectureships, and performs the occasional magic show.
J. M. Vincent, B.P.A. (Author of “The Millennium: Past, Present, or Future?”; Former Graduate Student) – Annual PPW Moderator and Online Event Coordinator; 2011 KC Prophecy Conference Host and Event Coordinator
Joseph M. Vincent is a life-long Christian and has ministered in teaching, music, and discipleship capacities with four different churches over the past 20 years. His educational background consists of a B.P.A. from Park University, along with Master’s Level credits obtained in Religion at Liberty Theological Seminary (Lynchburg, VA). Joseph’s primary vocation is in Quality Control as a government contractor for the NNSA in Kansas City, however he is also an avid writer and author, with hobbies in painting, research, web-development, graphic’s design, guitar/singing, sports (youth coaching), and many others. Joseph has been married to his wife Lauren since 2000, and has four boys. He is also a veteran of the United States Marine Corps, and was honorably discharged in 2002 as a Sergeant (E-5) in communications.